E-Crm Implementation Model for Small and Medium Enterprises in Developing Countries Case Study: Village Power Uganda and Crystal Safaris
Author: SEKATWE Tom
Supervisor: Richard Ssembatya
Several studies show that electronic Customer Relationship Management (e-CRMs) implementation have had a long history of failure (Myron, et al., 2002; Sarkindaji, et al., 2008; Almotairi, 2010; Mandic, 2011; Hashim and Abdullateef, 2013). The causes of failure have been cast in several directions. This study focused at the development of a model to improve Implementation of Electronic Customer Relationship Management (E-CRMs) in Small and Medium Enterprises. It investigated the challenges that SMEs in developing countries are facing in the implementation of e-CRMs. It also examined some of the commonly used IT Implementation models for e-CRMs with specific focus of identifying their strength and limitations. Based on the results of the examination, this study investigated the application of existing IT Implementation models/Approaches in developing an e-CRM Implementation model that is suitable for SMEs in developing countries.
Two case studies were selected for purposes of this study; Village Power and Crystal Safaris. These case studies were investigated with specific focus on gaining an in-depth understanding of the implementation of E-CRMs in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Questionnaires, focus group discussions, interviews and document analysis were the main instruments for data collection. Data was analyzed qualitatively using Colaizzi‘s 1978 framework for qualitative data analysis. The analysis of the results indicated that a number of factors that affect the implementation of technology were not well considered by these two case studies. Some of the challenges faced include; absence of risk managing planning, User resistance, insufficient resources, incomplete E-CRM roll out in the organization, insufficient assessment of the organization context, lack of- E-CRM implementation readiness assessment in the organization among others.
Based on the findings from this study, an E-CRM Implementation Model capable of improving the implementation of E-CRMs in SMEs was developed. In developing this model, focus was put on clearly specifying the different phases of E-CRM Implementation together with the key considerations for each phase. The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF 9.1) was adopted as the overall guiding framework. Kwon and Zmud (1987) Implementation model was used as the foundation model for the development of the e-CRM Implementation model. The model that was developed by this study was evaluated for completeness using Likert’s 5 Level rating scale. 12 e-CRM experts from Asia, Middle East and Africa participated in the evaluation exercise.
Though the proposed solution is expected to improve the implementation of E-CRMs for SMEs, there is need for ascertaining and confirming its ability and effectiveness in improving E-CRM implementation. In this regard, further research is needed to test and evaluate this model in live environments of various SMEs.