Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Integration and Sustainable Resettlement of Internally Displaced Persons in Uganda. Case Study: Bududa Landslide Survivors in Panyadoli-A, Kiryandongo District
Author: Jesca ANGIDA
Supervisor: Ika Lino
Disaster loss and damage is on the rise in Uganda with grave consequences for the survival, dignity and livelihood of affected communities and erodes any hard-won development gains. Bududa district locate in the slopes of Mount Elgon in eastern Uganda, has witnessed several landslides of increasing magnitude and severity since 1933 killing an estimated cumulative total of 516 people and displacing thousands. The most devastating landslide occurred in 2010, causing death of 365 people and displacing an estimated 10,000 households. This caused the Government of Uganda to relocate 603 affected households to Panyadoli settlement in Kiryandongo district to protect them from the risk of landslides and provide a long term solution through resettlement.
However, following several reports that a number of the relocated IDPs had returned to Bududa where more landslides continued to occur, it was necessary to establish whether or not the IDPs were supported and facilitated to sustainably resettle in Kiryandongo. A study was therefore conducted among the Bududa landslide survivors resettled Panyadoli-A settlement in Kiryandongo district, to examine the socio-economic factors enhancing or limiting the integration and sustainable resettlement of the Bududa landslide survivors.
A descriptive study design was adopted, employing qualitative research method to collect information on what was going on in the settlement. Data was collected through focus groups discussions (FGDs), individual interviews and literature review by administering; FGD guides, semi-structured questionnaires and document review respectively. Direct observation and photography were also used to gather information.
A total of 17 respondents including 12 landslide survivors, five key informants (representatives from; Kiryandongo district local Government, Office of the Prime Minister and Civil Society Organization) were interviewed. Two focus group discussions, with a cumulative number of 17 participants, were also conducted with the community representatives at Panyadoli-A settlement.
Findings revealed that the main source of livelihood for the landslide survivors resettled in Kiryandongo was subsistence farming. The Bududa landslide survivors felt free to celebrate their culture especially Imbalu dance, with active participation of the host community but missed out on the social support networks. About 83% of the land slide survivors interviewed expressed desire to permanently resettle in Panyadoli-A, in Kiryandongo because it was still not safe to return to Bududa. However, they expressed concern over; low land productivity; uncertainty surrounding land ownership; lack of alternative income sources and poor housing.
The main conclusion of the study is that although some of the factors aimed to facilitate the IDPsí resettlement in Kiryandongo have been addressed, the key issues of, security of land tenure; land productivity, and housing need to be addressed, to facilitate integration and sustainable resettlement.
The study recommends that OPM should implements a comprehensive and integrated approach to facilitate sustainable resettlement of the Bududa landslide survivors by supporting them to increase food production, provide decent housing, guaranteeing security of tenure and diversifying sources of income. OPM should put in place a resettlement fund which can be accessed by affected communities to enable them buy land and resettle in areas of their choice to facilitate sustainable resettlement or re-integration. OPM should also strengthen disaster prevention and disaster risk reduction by proactively engaging communities in disaster prone areas. Government, through OPM should implement an integrated and inclusive approach to disaster management aimed at linking emergency response and development efforts in a coordinated manner targeting both IDPs and host communities.